Sunday, January 15, 2023


                                                                                                                                                 Photo: Hannah Olinger


How would you feel if a critic said your picture book manuscript was not a picture book?

Recently, that very thing happened to my friend Anne.  As you can imagine, she was upset.  The critic remarked it was more suitable for a magazine.  What's weird is I had worked with Anne on this particular project and I've always considered it a picture book.  

So, how do you know if you've written a magazine story or a picture book?  

Magazine stories have fewer illustrations, have one scene, and are meant to be read once.  

Picture books rely on illustrations, have scenes that advance the plot, and are meant to be read out loud and repeatedly.  

Specifically, picture books:

  • Are usually for ages 4 - 8 
  • Are usually 32 pages 
  • Are about journey and heart (those words that makes us feel)
  • Present universal themes (love, friendship, courage, hope, etc.) in a fresh way
  • Impart a message without being preachy.  
  • Have a rhythm and a flow of the language that invites adults to read the story out loud
  • Have an engaging plot that begs the story to be read again and again
  • Have well-timed page turns 
  • Have lots of visual opportunities for illustrations 

Some picture books are simply a lively romp with lyrical language and energy that’ll entice re-reading for the sheer joy of it.  More often, picture books are character-driven with a strong arc.  These stories center on an inner conflict which leads to character development.    

What if you're still unsure if you've written a picture book?  

You can separate the text of your manuscript into pages and try to envision the art that will support each page. 

When author Debbie Ridpath Ohi pages out her text, she does tiny thumbnail sketches using stick figures to check overall flow.  Debbie says, "You don’t need to be an artist to do this!"

So, what did my friend decide to do?  Anne realized the critic was entitled to her opinion, but she also realized the critic had made some good points, which inspired her to reevaluate her picture book.  Moving forward, Anne plans to edit her work by making the text more joyful to ensure re-readability and by developing more inner conflict that will lead to character growth.   

Anne has the right attitude.  She knows it takes determination to stay positive and to continue after hearing discouraging comments. But what would you do if someone were to give you a disheartening critique about your work, especially if you heard it's not a picture book?  I hope you would question that opinion.  You may need to find others for support.  You certainly have my support.  I will tell you to believe in yourself.  Believe in your writing.  Don't let one opinion get you down.  Be strong.  Keep on going and don't give up.  You know as well as me, it takes perseverance and a thick skin to write for kids. 

✌ and 

Thursday, December 29, 2022

Thursday, December 15, 2022

Writing, naming characters and pets
Sweet ol' Ollie


Coming up with a great name for a character is one of the hardest tasks a writer will face.  I always explore the meaning of names to make the job a little easier and more fun.  And, having had practice naming characters for my stories, I assumed I'd have the honor of naming our cat.  

My daughter Abby however, didn’t want to hear any of my ideas.  She decided to call our cat Ollie.  And I’m not sure why.  Maybe she liked the sound of it.  Maybe it was the first name that popped into her head.  Maybe the cat looked like an Ollie to her.

Being a writer, I wanted to know the significance of his name.  So, I looked up the meaning of Ollie.  According to, Ollie is the pet form of Oliver, derived from the French word olivier or olive tree.  Which begs the question: why would anyone name a person or a pet after an olive tree?  I read on.  Some think the name Ollie has a Germanic origin composed of the words alf (elf) and hari (army). Whatever that's supposed to mean.  Regardless of the meaning, Ollie ended up being a fitting name for our cat. 

Our second cat is named Ozzie.  This time, it was my choice since Abby was 400 miles away in college.  I adopted him from the Lexington Humane Society several months after Ollie died.  Originally, Ozzie was named Polo, meaning brave wanderer—which he actually became seven years later when he escaped our house last Thanksgiving*.  But Ozzie didn't look like a Polo.  I wanted to pay homage to Ollie, so I decided to use a similar name using a double consonant.  After naming him, I discovered that Ozzie is Hebrew for strong and Old Norse meaning bear god.  Ozzie is neither.

Ozzie, not Polo 
I keep the bestowing of names to a minimum, for family, pets, and fictional characters. 

Some people get a little carried away and give names to their cars, boats, appliances, and laptops.  I knew a gal who gave her plants the names of Shakespeare characters.   
Some people name body parts.  I'll just leave it at that.    

Writer Geraldine DeRuiter, travel writer and blogger of The Everywhereist, gave her brain tumor a name.  

"As for why I named it Steve... well, duh. What else was I going to name it? There is no one to whom I am particularly close who is named Steve. I’ve never kissed a boy named Steve. I’ve never uttered the phrase, “Steve, I love you.” And Steve is nice and short and easy to add to a long list of unrepeatable words. Behold:  Fucking goddamn miserable piece-of-shit Steve.” 

As you know, names are important to writers.  We want our characters to be memorable and we want the names to reflect their personalities.  But sometimes, we choose names just because we like them and the name seems fitting regardless of what they mean.  

Which brings me back to our pet's name.  think Ozzie is perfect for our cat.  However, my husband tells me if he had been given a choice, he would have decided upon something different.  Something shorter.  In fact, it's even something he calls Ozzie from time to time.  Yes, Geraldine, my husband thinks like you, although his usage is less profane.  If he had been given a vote, he would have named our cat Steve. 

✌ and 

*Last year, Ozzie escaped on Thanksgiving evening.  Being an indoor cat, he didn't have the skills to survive outside.  We had given up hope of every seeing him again.  But two months later, someone posted a picture online of a lost cat that looked like our cat. Long story short, we were reunited with a very skinny, but unharmed (and grateful) Ozzie. 

Tuesday, November 15, 2022

                                                                                                                                                           Photo: Josh Applegate


When agents and editors read your work, they are not only looking for character and plot, they want to get a sense of the theme.  Theme is a word or two that gives the essence of your story.  It touches on what the main character learns and how that character changes in the process of the story. 

That said, can you identify the theme or themes in your picture book stories?  For me, two themes often appear in my picture books:  bravery/courage and kindness/empathy  

Why do I choose these themes?  It's kind of like the sorting hat in Harry Potter, where the hat chooses the wizard. I don't choose a theme; the theme becomes apparent after the first draft of the story. 

When I write a children's book, I concentrate on character and plot.  The theme turns up when most of the story has been developed.  

For instance, in one of my picture books, a young girl wants to find a way to help a homeless person.  This story, based on a true experience, honors my daughter who gave her umbrella to a penniless person.  As the story developed, the theme of empathy emerged by showing the actions of the main character.  

If you're struggling with theme, consider what Writers Write has to say:  

"A theme can be chosen by answering one or both questions:

  1. What does the protagonist learn about him or herself in the story?
  2. What does the protagonist learn to cope with in the story?"

Writers Write identifies 10 Powerful Recurring Themes In Children’s Stories:

  1. Courage
  2. Friendship
  3. Belonging/Identity
  4. Family
  5. Loss/Grief
  6. Growing Up.
  7. Anger
  8. Suffering
  9. Jealousy
  10. Love
Of course, there are many other choices, as listed here: 

Most memorable children's books revolve around a theme.  For example, the theme of Horton Hears a Who is taking a stand and the value of hard work is the theme in The Little Engine That Could.

But don't let finding a theme pressure you.  Relax, don't overthink it.  I suggest that you pour out your story and let it evolve.  Have confidence that a theme will appear.     

But...a word of caution:  If you're ready to submit your picture book, avoid pointing blatantly to the theme of your story.  This can be a bit of a turnoff to an agent.  Rest assured that when you describe the actions of your protagonist, you'll be able to convey the theme.    

Often, I've found that the themes in my picture book books end up being things I care deeply about.  They are issues I want to explore and causes I want to shed light on.  This may be the case for you, too.  Themes emerge when you write about something you're passionate about.  So, take a look at the pieces that you've written and the actions of the main character.  Can you identify the themes in your stories?  

✌ and 

Saturday, October 15, 2022

elements of a story, main character, conflict, literary agents
                                                                                                                                                                            Photo: Nong V

This week, a client sent me two picture book manuscripts that were beautifully written but lacked the basic elements of a story:  character and conflict.  It's very likely that these manuscripts will be rejected by agents.  Most agents crave stories with character and conflict.    

Let's take a look at these two pieces.  In one of them, the story is about fencing, an activity the writer had loved as a child and still enjoys as an adult.  The writer describes the uniform, the épée (sword), the stance, the attack and the three main moves.  This goes on for about 500 words.  And that's it.  Descriptions.  There isn't a main character who confronts a problem.  

In the other story, we have two characters, best friends, who go on an adventure.  Picture books can have more than one character, but one of them should be the central character and this central character should have a problem.  But in this piece, the conflict was unclear.  I couldn't tell what the main character wanted, what got in her way, and how she would resolve the problem.  To me, the story was an imaginative playful journey with no major conflict.  

Most books, whether they are picture books, middle grade, young adult, memoirs, or novels, have character and conflict.  They go hand in hand.  Conflict is born out of a character wanting something—and having trouble getting it.  

I had the fortune to listen to five agents on a SCBWI webinar panel weigh in on the subject.  They agreed a story should have a good sense of the main character (MC), plot, what the MC wants, and what stands in the way (conflict).  

An agent from the Andrea Brown Literary Agency states writers must find a way to connect with young readers not by story, but with the MC. She explains writers must create a relatable character that elicits emotion and develop a story arc which shows character growth or change.  

Children's author Margot Finke writes that conflict is on the checklist for picture books.  She states that "the main character needs to be in conflict with something or someone for the story to grip small readers. Have some problem that bothers, or gnaws, or leads to trouble. The hero/heroine gets to solve the problem over the course of the story. The solving is the meat in your story."

So, returning to the two manuscripts, what can the writer do to improve the books?  For the fencing story, the writer can keep the fencing descriptions, but she must develop a character who cares deeply about the sport.  She must describe how the character feels about fencing.  It's all about emotion.  Once that is established, then the writer can devise a problem the fencer faces and has to solve.  

In the adventure story, the writer can take the main character that has already been developed and invent a specific problem that gets in the way of what this character wants.  That conflict should be obvious and challenging to solve.   

These solutions may seem obvious to more seasoned writers.  But some newbies may struggle with character and conflict.  When that happens, I have a few exercises that might help.  

For character:  Set the plot aside and focus on the protagonist.  Let the imagination run wild and think of the first character that pops in your head.  Then cast that character as the star in the story.  This initial character will probably not be the best choice, but it gets the creative juices flowing and it will lead to finding the perfect character as the piece is revised.      

For conflict:  Think about putting yourself into the story and running into a problem you'd never want to face.  Or even better, have a conversation with the MC and have her tell you about the problem she's encountered and how she plans to solve it.

As a writer, you are free to write whatever you're craving to write.  Even if it's a description of an activity you love doing.  Or a wacky or wondrous adventure.  But like many agents, I believe that manuscripts must have the basic elements of a story.  So, if you want to publish a picture book, take an honest look at your work.  Does it have character and conflict?  

✌ and 

Thursday, September 15, 2022

rejection, challenges of writing for kids, powerful writing hooks
                                                                                                                                                      Photo: Dmitry Schemelev 


From time to time, I question whether I should stick with writing.  This doubt arises when my work is rejected or worse ignored, which makes me wonder if my submissions were ever received.  

It's hard to remain positive, even though many authors say never give up.  

Disappointment lingered (so real I could almost touch it), but I shoved it aside to work on a fictional story and a nonfiction picture book.  I toggled back in forth between the manuscripts, editing the pieces but felt they would never be completed, never reach perfection (in my mind), never become what they should become.  I moved sentences around, deleted words, added dialogue, and I am so f*cking brain-tired and full of doubt.   

The week before had been easier.  I submitted two picture manuscripts to agents, one playful and the other more serious.  These stories have unique characters, memorable opening lines, good flow, strong tension, and story arc.  I believe they are different than what agents expect to find in their inboxes.  But will an agent be open to something different?  Will they get my writing and share my vision?  Will an agent fall in love with my work?  

Ozzie relaxes behind my computer and I give him a chin rub.  Lizzie climbs in my lap for attention.  They are a nice distraction.  I need it.  My cats help keep the depression at bay

I take a break.  I work a Wordle.  I move on to Quordle.  I solve them both quickly. 

At times, I wonder why I continue to write when publication has changed so much over the years.  At first, writers only had to compete with the celebrities and published authors.  Now days, writers have to compete with author-illustrators and with writers who have a referral.  Lately, we compete with the LBGTQ and marginalized authors and I applaud them because it's time their voices are heard.  But submitting has never been tougher.  

On top of the competition, writers must match their manuscripts to an agent's wish list.  But it's like trying to read an agent's mind.  I do my best to send an appropriate piece and end up with replies that say, "it's not a good fit," or, "it's not what I'm looking for."  I feel defeated.  And I don't want to feel this way.  

By chance, I noticed an online class on querying. Though I've been submitting for years, I signed up.  One can always learn something new and useful.  

Instructor Kathy van Eecke revealed 20 common query mistakes (yep, I had made one) and ways to correct them.  She advised us to take a look at Query Shark, a website that critiques queries.  Most of all, she encouraged us to rethink our queries.  She said it probably wasn't our books that needed help, it was our hooks. 

The timing of this workshop could not have been better.  It was the boost I needed.  After watching the webinar and studying a lot of query examples, I scrutinized the hooks of the five books I had written.  They were good, but they needed to be exceptional.  They had to grab agents and make them want to keep reading.  

So, I inserted a teaser (a captivating line or quote) before the book description.  I also reworked the book descriptions so that the first line of each one indicated three things: the main character, the inciting action, and the dilemma.  I found this would require concise writing.  But within a few days, I had jazzed up the five queries. 

I don't know how agents will feel about my submissions.  They are a picky crew and have very specific tastes in what they want to acquire.  But at least I know my queries are more intriguing and even a bit mysterious.  Having taken my queries to the next level, I have more belief in my hooks and in my books.  I am hopeful.  More positive.  Encouragement flows in, so real that I can almost touch it.         

✌ and 

Monday, August 15, 2022

writing for kids, the journey to publication, why writing for kids is not easy
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Photo: Anita Jankovic 


Before the pandemic, Baxter's Corner had expressed interest in publishing my children's book titled Tajo Speaks Out.  When I informed people of the news, some of them said, "Anyone can write a children's book.  Writing for kids is easy."   

Those of us who write for kids would strongly disagree.  And here's why.  Writing and publishing for children can be broken down into two parts:  the creative process and the submission process.  For the creative process a writer must develop a manuscript that 
is about 500 words, that allows for illustrations, and that centers around a theme relatable to young kids.  It must be engaging, marketable, and revised multiple times.    

The submission process is every bit as arduous.  A writer must compose a professional query letter and research agents that are open to picture book submissions.  Submitting to an agent doesn't guarantee an acceptance.  It can take years to find an agent.  On top of that, if a writer signs with an agent, the agent must submit the work to publishers.  The whole process, from initial idea to publishing a book can take up to two years.  

Since I had met the publisher of Baxter's Corner, I could skip the submission process.  But creating that book wasn't a walk in the park.  There were tight guidelines.  Specifically, I had to choose an animal character the company had developed and assign a moral value to this character.  Okay you say, select a character and the value and get on with writing the story.  But it wasn't that simple.  
Photo: Johnny McClung 

Before the first word of the story could be written, I was asked to develop the objectives.  This involved describing the character's problem, the rising conflict, the solution, and the resolution.*  After writing the objectives, I sent them to the publisher and she discussed them with her team of consultants.  When everyone made their assessment, the publisher sent me their suggestions. Then publisher and I went back and forth many times over many months to polish the objectives.    

Once this step was nailed, I got the green light to write the story.  Here's the catch:  Baxter Corner books are written in rhyming couplets, but the rhymes could not be repeated.  Also, the meter or beats (syllables) had to be even so that the story wouldn't sound forced or choppy when read aloud.  I checked to make sure the rhyming was smooth and then moved on to the next phase of the process.  

My beta reader critiqued Tajo.  After implementing his suggestions, I sent the story to the publisher so she and her team could study it.  The draft was heavily criticized and returned to me for more revision.  I tweaked the story and I sent it to the publishing staff so they could review it again.  After I made some minor changes, the team approved the final version and it was ready to be professionally edited and illustrated.  Finally, this project was getting closer to publication.  

And then...COVID hit.  As the pandemic raged, the market changed, the focus of Baxter's Corner shifted, and Tajo was put on the back burner.   

This outcome was not a surprise to me.  I sensed the direction Baxter's Corner was taking on Facebook. The company had been making posts about the themes in its upcoming books—themes which varied greatly from Tajo.  So, when the publisher called to tell me my book had been shelved, I was prepared for the heart-breaking news.  Still, this setback sucked. would not defeat me. 

I will move forward and use this experience to become a better writer.  A stronger, more resilient person.  Undaunted.  I will write in spite of rejections or the shifts in the market.  I will write in spite of the notion people say it's easy.  There will always be disappointments, setbacks and ignorance.  And spite of it all, I will write for kids.    

✌ and 

* Jotting down the objectives is a great exercise and it can help in developing the structure of your story.